Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels resulting from chronic inflammation and the accumulation of macrophages and LDL without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol by HDL. In addition to chronic inflammation, chronic oxidative and nitrosative stress also play a significant role in the disease via oxidation and dysregulation of LDL and HDL particles.

Astaxanthin has been shown to significantly decrease LDL-C and ApoB levels, increase HDL-C, and decrease TNF-α in humans. Likewise, astaxanthin significantly decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C levels and increased HDL-C levels in several animal models of disease.

Importantly, astaxanthin has been shown to decrease atheroma formation in a diet-driven atherogenesis animal model as well as decrease several measures of LDL oxidation. The effect of astaxanthin on HDL and LDL functionality is understandable because astaxanthin is naturally located within HDL and LDL particles for distribution systemically.

An important source of oxidative stress affecting HDL and LDL particles in humans is myeloperoxidase (“MPO”) and astaxanthin has been shown to significantly decrease MPO activity in animals. Astaxanthin was also shown in a cell-based study to increase cholesterol efflux from macrophages, a function that would drastically aid in reduction of atherosclerotic disease. These observations underscore the potential importance of astaxanthin in treatment of atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases.