Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that together increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and liver disease. Several pathophysiological features define metabolic syndrome including central obesity, increased triglyceride levels, decreased HDL-C levels, elevated blood pressure, and increased fasting glucose levels.

In humans, astaxanthin has been shown to significantly lower triglycerides and increase HDL-C levels. Similarly, in animal models of disease, astaxanthin administration significantly decreased blood pressure, increased HDL-C levels, lowered triglycerides, and decreased fasting glucose levels. In addition, decreased levels of the metabolic regulator adiponectin are associated with dysfunction of critical signaling pathways that control glucose production and uptake, triglyceride production and distribution, and mitochondrial biogenesis and function.

Astaxanthin has been shown in human and animal studies to significantly increase levels of adiponectin with the inference that restoration of adiponectin function is key to remediation of metabolic syndrome physiology.

These studies underscore the potential for astaxanthin treatment to ameliorate the majority of physiological measures defining metabolic syndrome and thereby decrease the risk of ensuing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and liver disease.