In human proof-of-concept “pilot” studies conducted by third parties, astaxanthin statistically significantly decreased inflammation, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure:

  • CRP decreased (-20%, p<0.05; two studies)
  • Triglycerides decreased (-25.8%, p<0.05)
  • LDL-C decreased (-10.4%, p<0.05)
  • HDL-C increased (+14.5%, p<0.01)
  • Apolipoprotein B decreased (-7.5%, p<0.01)
  • Adiponectin increased (+26%, p<0.01; +14%, p=0.0053; +30%, p=0.01; three studies)
  • Blood pressure decreased (systolic blood pressure -4.6%, p=0.021; diastolic blood pressure -6.9%, p<0.001; two studies)
  • Blood flow velocity increased (choroidal, p=0.018, blood transit time, p<0.01)

In animal studies conducted by third parties and us, astaxanthin demonstrated statistically significant improvements in models of cardiovascular disease:

  • CRP and IL-6 decreased
  • Triglycerides decreased (plasma, hepatic)
  • Re-thrombosis decreased
  • Atherosclerosis decreased (aortic arch plaque)
  • Cholesterol decreased
  • Blood pressure decreased
  • Nitric oxide production increased