In human proof-of-concept “pilot” studies conducted by third parties, astaxanthin statistically significantly decreased fat accumulation in biopsy-diagnosed NASH patients, decreased TNF-α, improved lipid profile parameters, and decreased oxidative stress:

  • NASH disease markers decreased in patients:
    • Steatosis: p<0.05
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (“NAFLD”) Activity Score (“NAS”): p<0.08
    • Lobular inflammation decreased: trend
  • TNF-α decreased (-30%, p=0.0022)
  • Lipid profile parameters improved (LDL, HDL, ApoB, TG)
  • Oxidative stress decreased (MDA, IsoP, SOD, TAC increased)

In animal studies conducted by third parties and us, astaxanthin statistically significantly decreased elevated liver enzymes, lipids, insulin resistance, steatosis, and fibrosis:

  • Elevated liver enzyme levels decreased
  • Steatosis decreased
  • Fibrosis and induced acute hepatitis decreased
  • Insulin levels & sensitivity (HOMA-IR, QUICK) increased
  • Insulin signaling (PI3K-AKT, IRS-1p) increased
  • Adiponectin levels increased