In human proof-of-concept “pilot” studies conducted by third parties, astaxanthin statistically significantly increased adiponectin and decreased TNF-α and oxidative stress:

  • Adiponectin increased (+26%, p<0.01; +14%, p=0.0053; +30%, p=0.01; three studies)
  • TNF-α decreased (-30%, p=0.0022)
  • Oxidative stress decreased (MDA, IsoP, SOD, TAC increased)

In animal studies conducted by third parties, astaxanthin demonstrated statistically significant improvements in models of metabolic disease:

  • Fasting blood glucose levels decreased
  • Insulin levels & sensitivity (HOMA-IR, QUICK) increased
  • Insulin signaling (PI3K-AKT, IRS-1p) increased
  • Adiponectin levels increased
  • Insulin response and glucose tolerance (ipGTT) increased
  • GLUT-4 translocation increased
  • JNK, ERK-1 levels decreased
  • Nitric oxide production increased