Ryu SK, King TJ, Fujioka K, Pattison J, Pashkow FJ, Tsimikas S, 2012.

Effect of an oral astaxanthin prodrug (CDX-085) on lipoprotein levels and progression of atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) mice.
Atherosclerosis, 222(1): 99-105.

Pashkow FJ, 2011.

Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Heart Disease: Do Antioxidants Have a Role in Treatment and/or Prevention?
International Journal of Inflammation, 2011(514623): 1-9.

Khan SK, Malinski T, Mason RP, Kubant R, Jacob RF, Fujioka K, Denstaedt SJ, King TJ, Jackson HL, Hieber AD, Lockwood SF, Goodin TH, Pashkow FJ, Bodary PF, 2010.

Novel astaxanthin prodrug (CDX-085) attenuates thrombosis in a mouse model.
Thrombosis Research, 126(4): 299-305.

Serebruany V, Malinin A, Goodin T, Pashkow F, 2010.

The in vitro effects of Xancor, a synthetic astaxanthine derivative, on hemostatic biomarkers in aspirin-naive and aspirin-treated subjects with multiple risk factors for vascular disease.
American Journal of Therapeutics, 17(2): 125-32.

Lauver DA, Driscoll EM, Lucchesi BR, 2008.

Disodium disuccinate astaxanthin prevents carotid artery rethrombosis and ex vivo platelet activation.
Pharmacology, 82(1): 67-73.

Pashkow FJ, Watumull DG, Campbell CL, 2008.

Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease.
American Journal of Cardiology, 101(10A): 58D-68D.

Jackson H, Braun CL, Ernst H, 2008.

The chemistry of novel xanthophyll carotenoids.
American Journal of Cardiology, 101(10A): 50D-57D.

Bhatt DL, 2008.

Anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants as a possible “third great wave” in cardiovascular secondary prevention.
American Journal of Cardiology, 101(10A): 4D-13D.

McNulty H, Jacob RF, Mason RP, 2008.

Biologic activity of carotenoids related to distinct membrane physicochemical interactions.
American Journal of Cardiology, 101(10A): 20D-29D.

Pashkow FJ, Watumull DG, Campbell CL, 2008.

Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease.
American Journal of Cardiology, 101(10A): 58D-68D.

Rishton GM, 2008.

Natural products as a robust source of new drugs and drug leads: past successes and present day issues.
American Journal of Cardiology, 101(10A): 43D-49D.

Naess SN, Sliwka HR, Partali V, Melo TB, Razi Naqvi K, Jackson HL, Lockwood SF, 2007.

Hydrophilic carotenoids: surface properties and aggregation of an astaxanthin-lysine conjugate, a rigid, long-chain, highly unsaturated and highly water-soluble tetracationic bolaamphiphile.
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 148(2): 63-69.

Hazai E, Bikadi Z, Zsila F, Lockwood, 2007.

Non-Covalent Binding of Disodium Disuccinate Astaxanthin to the Catalytic Site of Phosphodiesterase 5A: A Molecular Modeling Study.
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 4(2): 128-136.

McNulty HP, Byun J, Lockwood SF, Jacob RF, Mason RP, 2007.

Differential effects of carotenoids on lipid peroxidation due to membrance interactions: X-ray diffraction analysis.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Biomembranes, 1768(1): 167-174.

Mason RP, Walter MF, McNulty HP, Lockwood SF, Byun J, Day CA, Jacob RF, 2006.

Rofecoxib increases susceptibility of human LDL and membrane lipids to oxidative damage: a mechanism of cardiotoxicity.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 47(Suppl 1): S7-S14.

Hazai E, Bikadi Z, Zsila F, Lockwood SF, 2006.

Molecular modeling of the non-covalent binding of the dietary tomato carotenoids lycopene and lycophyll, and selected oxidative metabolites with 5-lipoxygenase.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 14(20): 6859-6867.

Bikadi Z, Hazai E, Zsila F, Lockwood SF, 2006.

Molecular modeling of non-covalent binding of homochiral (3S,3’S)-astaxanthin to matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13).
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 14(16): 5451-5458.

Foss BJ, Nadolski G, Lockwood SF, 2006.

Hydrophilic carotenoid amphiphiles: methods of synthesis and biological applications.
Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 6(9): 953-969.

Zsila F, Nadolski G, Lockwood SF, 2006.

Association studies of aggregated aqueous lutein diphosphate with human serum albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein in vitro: Evidence from circular dichroism and electronic absorption spectroscopy.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 16(14): 3797-3801.

Braun CL, Jackson HL, Lockwood SF, Nadolski G, 2006.

Purification of synthetic all-E lycophyll (ψ,ψ-carotene-16,16′-diol).
Journal of Chromatography B, 834(1-2): 208-212.

Lockwood SF, Jackson HL, Gross GJ, 2006.

Retrometabolic syntheses of astaxanthin(3,3′-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione) conjugates: a novel approach to oral and parenteral cardioprotection.
Cardiovascular and Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 4(4): 335-349.

Lockwood SF, Penn MS, Hazen SL, Bikadi Z, Zsila F, 2006.

The effects of oral Cardax™ (disodium disuccinate astaxanthin) on multiple independent oxidative stress markers in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model: influence on 5-lipoxygenase in vitro and in vivo.
Life Sciences, 79(2): 162-174.

Gross GJ, Hazen SL, Lockwood SF, 2006.

Seven day oral supplementation with Cardax™ (disodium disuccinate astaxanthin) provides significant cardioprotection and reduces oxidative stress in rats.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 283(1-2): 23-30.

Nadolski G, Cardounel AJ, Zweier JL, Lockwood SF, 2006.

The synthesis and aqueous superoxide anion scavenging of water-dispersible lutein esters.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 16(4): 775-781.

King TJ, Bertram JS, 2005.

Connexins as targets for cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy.
Biochimica Biophysica Acta-Biomembranes, 1719(1-2): 146-160.

Jackson HL, Nadolski GT, Braun C, Lockwood SF, 2005.

Efficient total synthesis of lycophyll (ψ,ψ-carotene-16,16′-diol).
Organic Process Research & Development, 9(6): 830-836.

Lockwood SF, Gross GJ, 2005.

Disodium disuccinate astaxanthin (Cardax™): antioxidant and antiinflammatory cardioprotection.
Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, 23(3): 199-216.

Zsila F, Bikadi Z, Lockwood SF, 2005.

In vitro binding of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) to human serum albumin: Evidence from spectroscopic, molecular modeling, and competitive displacement studies.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry letters, 15(16): 3725-3731.

Hix LM, Frey DA, McLaws MD, Østerlie M, Lockwood SF, Bertram JS, 2005.

Inhibition of chemically-induced neoplastic transformation by a novel tetrasodium diphosphate astaxanthin derivative.
Carcinogenesis, 26(9): 1634-1641.

Lauver DA, Lockwood SF, Lucchesi BR, 2005.

Disodium Disuccinate Astaxanthin (Cardax) Attenuates Complement Activation and Reduces Myocardial Injury following Ischemia/Reperfusion.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 314(2): 686-692.

Zsila F, Molnar P, Deli J, Lockwood SF, 2005.

Circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopic data reveal binding of the natural cis-carotenoid bixin to human α1-acid glycoprotein.
Bioorganic Chemistry, 33(4): 298-309.

Foss BJ, Sliwka HR, Partali V, Naess SN, Elgsaeter A, Melø TB, Naqvi R, O’Malley S, Lockwood SF, 2005.

Hydrophilic carotenoids: surface properties and aqueous aggregation of a rigid, long-chain, highly unsaturated dianionic bolaamphiphile with a carotenoid spacer.
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 135(2): 157-167.

Gross GJ, Lockwood SF, 2005.

Acute and chronic administration of disodium disuccinate astaxanthin (Cardax™) produces marked cardioprotection in dog hearts.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 272(1-2): 221-227.

Zsila F, Fitos I, Bikadi Z, Simonyi M, Jackson HL, Lockwood SF, 2004.

In vitro plasma protein binding and aqueous aggregation behavior of astaxanthin dilysinate tetrahydrochloride.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 14(21): 5357-5366.

Frey DA, Kataisto EW, Ekmanis JL, O’Malley S, Lockwood SF, 2004.

The efficient synthesis of disodium disuccinate astaxanthin (Cardax).
Organic Process Research & Development, 8(5): 796-801.

Hix LM, Vine AL, Lockwood SF, Bertram JS, 2005.

Retinoids and carotenoids as cancer chemopreventive agents: role of upregulated gap junctional communication.
In: Packer L, Obermueller-Jevic U, Kraemer K, Sies H (Eds).
Carotenoids and Retinoids: Molecular Aspects and Health Issues. AOCS Press; Champaign, IL. Ch. 11: 182-203.

Jackson HL, Cardounel AJ, Zweier JL, Lockwood SF, 2004.

Synthesis, characterization, and direct aqueous superoxide anion scavenging of a highly water-dispersible astaxanthin-amino acid conjugate.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 14(15): 3985-3991.

Hix LM, Lockwood SF, Bertram JS, 2004.

Bioactive carotenoids: potent antioxidants and regulators of gene expression.
Redox Report, 9(4): 181-191.

Foss BJ, Sliwka H-R, Partali V, Cardounel AJ, Zweier JL, Lockwod SF, 2004.

Direct superoxide anion scavenging by a highly water-dispersible carotenoid phospholipid evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 14(11): 2807-2812.

Gross GJ, Lockwood SF, 2004.

Cardioprotection and myocardial salvage by a disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivative (Cardax™).
Life Sciences, 75(2): 215-224.

Hix LM, Lockwood SF, Bertram JS, 2004.

Upregulation of connexin 43 protein expression and increased gap junctional communication by water soluble disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivatives.
Cancer Letters, 211(1): 25-37.

Showalter LA, Weinman SA, Østerlie M, Lockwood SF, 2004.

Plasma appearance and tissue accumulation of non-esterified, free astaxanthin in C57BL/6 mice after oral dosing of a disodium disuccinate diester of astaxanthin (Heptax™).
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, 137(3): 227-236.

Zsila F, Simonyi M, Lockwood SF, 2003.

Interaction of the disodium disuccinate derivative of meso-astaxanthin with human serum albumin: from chiral complexation to self-assembly.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 13(22): 4093-4100.

Cardounel AJ, Dumitrescu C, Zweier JL, Lockwood SF, 2003.

Direct superoxide anion scavenging by a disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivative: relative efficacy of individual stereoisomers versus the statistical mixture of stereoisomers by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 307(3): 704-712.

Lockwood SF, O’Malley S, Mosher GL, 2003.

Improved aqueous solubility of crystalline astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione) by Captisol (sulfobutyl ether β-cycklodextrin).
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 92(4): 922-926.